Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan (2009) APPLYING INTEGRATED ECOLOGICAL PLANNING AND ADAPTIVE LANDSCAPE EVALUATION TOOL FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN THE FRAMEWORK OF SUSTAINABLE SPATIAL PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, STUDY CASE BINTAN ISLAND, INDONESIA. In: Positioning Planning in the Global Crises International Seminar, conducted by Planning Department, School of Architecture Planning and Policy Development, Bandung Institute of Technology, 2009, November 2009, Bandung.
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Developing countries, like Indonesia, face great development pressure due to economic development for great number of populations. Various environmental problems later emerge due to unplanned, uncontrolled and unsustainable land use development as well as severe environmental destructions. The need for integrated ecological planning actually emerges from this concern. The integrated ecological planning could be defined as “Planning process that consider the ecological condition, environmental carrying capacity, and other social economy that affect the location. Later on, integration of infrastructure planning such as water management, mass transportation, waste management, energy conservation, etc. Involvement of stakeholders would be integrated in the process application. “ The real ecological planning application face constraints such as the lack of political will, lack of expertise, tools, research, and funding in government as well as consultants. But still the integrated ecological planning should be applied to achieve the more sustainable development as well as to conserve of strategic or important ecological areas. One of the important steps of ecological planning is the landscape evaluation methodology. The evaluation method research was started in 2005, for National University of Singapore, MSc Environmental Management program. Later through real application, we redefine the method with real application in other planning projects in other countries. Our research involves identifying the key elements of all evaluation methods, which were later distilled and refined to build on Adaptive Landscape Evaluation Tool or ”ALiT”. The strengths of system lie mainly in establishing evaluation methods, adaptive list of data, and scoring thresholds that embraces sustainable land development principles. The method was validated in Bintan Buyu, Bintan Island, Indonesia and proven to be applicable for local government. While the criteria and other scoring system would need to be adjusted to each different cases. The proposed system is comprehensive yet manageable and practicable. It encompasses four important elements as part of the development and evaluation process, namely, initial secondary data collection, rapid survey to verify critical data, multi-disciplinary analysis with Geographic Information System (GIS), and lastly, stakeholders’ inputs. The authors believe that ALiT can be a very useful tool for reducing environmental destruction while accommodating economic development in developing countries. We understands that there are constrains in method application due to lack of political will as well as limited funding to gather all environmental, social and economical aspects. Because of that, the vision for developing Sustainable Spatial Planning must be made first between stakeholders of the region comprising Public, People and Private (Government, the People and the Private sector). And Integrated Spatial Planning with Focus on Ecological Approach would be the near-future trend for the World.
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